Basic Principles Of Interior Design

If you know the basics of interior design, you can turn any space into something that looks fabulous. You know how it feels when you walk into a well-designed space. You can feel how cohesive everything looks. It feels just right. With a little knowledge of design basics, you can create that same effect in your home. Practice and experiment with this knowledge and you’ll be well on your way to creating a beautiful home.


In design, balance creates a sense of equilibrium. It’s about balancing or equalizing the visual weight of objects. Balance is created not only by form, but also by color, pattern and texture.

There are three different types of balance:

Symmetrical or Formal: Traditional or formal spaces require asymmetrical balance, where the space is evenly divided into two sides that mirror each other. For example, two chairs on either side of a coffee table are symmetrically balanced. This type of balance is easy to achieve because the design elements are repeated on each side. If you are not careful, this type of balance can become monotonous and boring.

Asymmetrical or Informal: The visual weight of lines, colors, shapes, and textures is balanced without being exactly repetitive. It is not as regular as symmetrical balance and can be more complex and interesting. For example, a sofa can be balanced by placing two chairs on the other side.

Radial balance: is achieved when there is a central focal point from which other elements emanate or are arranged around it. An example of this is a round dining table with chairs arranged around it. Shape, texture and color have many repetitions.


Like music, rhythm in design is about creating repeating patterns and contrasts to create visual interest. You can do this by using the same color or shape at different intervals. The goal is to move your eyes through the space. For example, you can create a rhythm by using a color on the pillow, picking it up again on the painting, and repeating it on the rug. These repetitions will help keep your eyes in the room.


Harmony occurs when all the elements work together to convey a single message. Just as rhythm can create excitement, so can harmony. For example, you can create harmony with colors even if your shapes are very different in shape, size, and texture.


A room where everything is equally important seems scattered or boring. You need an anchor. Architectural spaces often have focal points like a fireplace or a window with a beautiful view. You can reinforce the focal point of the decor by arranging furniture around it to emphasize it. In a room that does not have such a focal point, you can create one by grouping furniture or using an unusual or large piece.

Proportion and scale

Proportion is the relationship between the size of one piece and the size of another, and scale is the relationship between the size of one object and the size of another object or the room in which it is placed. For example, a large couch set would not be proportionate in a small room.

Some relationships are more pleasing than others. The ancient Greeks introduced the Golden Ratio, which they used to try to reduce all relationships to a simple formula: The ratio of the smaller segment to the larger segment should be the same as the ratio of the larger segment to the total. This correspondence exists in nature and was used by artists and architects.